Saturday, December 26, 2009

Aero Microorganism (Microorganism that Exist in The Air)


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Are there a bacterium, virus or other micro-organism in the air? The answer: exactly YES! Even there is so many of them. Article below will explain about micro-organism, may exist in the air of our living environment.
Atmosphere consist of 2 main layer, troposphere and stratosphere. Troposphere consist of laminar layer, turbulen layer, outer friction layer and convection layer. Atmosphere contained by particles called aerosol, one of aerosol component is bio-aerosol that contain micro-organism and pollen (Sofa, 2008). 


Exactly, there isn’t truly micro-organism that spend all their lives in the air, because organism can’t life and just float in the air. Aero micro-organism sometimes take off to the ground or water as one part of their life-cycle. Aero micro-organism consist of organism that float in the air for a while or carried by wind and dust. When you cough and sneeze, it can forming a bio-aerosol.
Although micro-organism can’t spend all their lives in the air, but in every air sampling  always founded a micro-organism (Volk & Wheeler, 1989). 



Micro-organism in the air isn’t permanent and they have many variant. Air isn’t medium that micro-organism can life and grow, but air is dust, dew and any particular material carrier. Dust, dew and particular material is possible to be containing micro-organism. Scientist having difficulties during calculate how much (in volume) micro-organism that containing the air. Until in 1989, Volk & Wheeler introduce the simple qualitative method for  estimating how much micro-organism containing the air in some place. Volk & Wheeler put a plate of micro-organism medium in some place, then in few minute, some micro-organism will drop to the medium that prepared before. After that, they put the medium in incubator about 1 until 2 days or 24-48 hours, then will appear many colony of bacteria and fungi on the surface of medium. 


There is various kind of type and number of micro-organism in air. Its depend on location, weather condition and also human population in these area. Dusty area, almost have high number of aero micro-organism. But, rain, snow and ice rain inclined to decrease the number of micro-organism in the atmosphere, because they bring dust and heavier particle to the ground. Number of micro-organism decreased in surface of sea and high altitude (Volk & Wheeler, 1989) 


Irianto (2002), says that the number of aero micro-organism can increased by other pollutant in the air, such as from human breath and mouth that brushed away when cough and sneeze.

Kind of Aero Micro-organism
Although there isn’t micro-organism have original habitat in the atmosphere, but in fact, atmostphere  usually contain many kind of micro-organism, they exist in from zero meters until several kilometers air area above earth.


Scientist have to isolate algae, protozoa, bacteria, kind of virus and also micro-fungi from the atmosphere. The example of micro-organism that isolated from town atmosphere is present below:

Height (in meters)
Bacteria (genus)
Fungi (genus)
1.500 – 4.500
Alcaligenes
Bacillus
Aspergillus
Macrosporium
Penicillium
4.500 – 7.500
Bacillus
Aspergillus
Clasdosporium
7.500 – 10.500
Sarcina
Bacillus
Aspergillus
Hormodendrum
10.500 – 13.500
Bacillus
Kurthia
Aspergillus
Hormodendrum
13.500 – 16.500
Micrococcus
Bacillus
Penicillium
Source : Irianto (2002)


Data on the table above is taken from research in several month. The most micro-organism that found are spore of fungi, mainly from Aspergillus genus member. Among micro-organism that founded in these research, there are spore bacteria and un-spore bacteria, positive and negative gram bacillus, and also positive gram cocus bacteria (Irianto, 2002)

Air Composition  
Standard air composition that inhaled everyday by us, have knew for long time ago. But also, since air pollution become more complex, these composition may be changed, specially because there are many new and strange components enter to the atmosphere.


From data, we know that standard air composition consist of many chemistry component, they are: Nitrogen, Oxigen, Argon, Carbon dioxide, Neon, Helium, Metana, Cripton, N-Oxide, Hydrogen and Xenon. And also beside component above, there is bio-component, generally they are micro-organism (Suriawiria, 1985).   


Source: 

Anonim a. 2006. Pengantar Mikrobiologi, (Online),
(http://www.wanna_share.23s9887_apm.html, Access date:  February-7-2008).
Darkuni, M. Noviar. 2001. Mikrobiologi (Bakteriologi, Virologi, dan Mikologi). Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang.
Dwidjoseputro, D. 2005. Dasar-Dasar Mikrobiologi. Jakarta: Imagraph.
Kusnadi, dkk. 2003. Mikrobiologi. Malang: JICA.
Schlegel, Hans G, dan Karin Schmidt. 1994. Mikrobiologi Umum edisi keenam. Terjemahan Tedjo Baskoro: Allgemeine Mikrobiologie 6. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.
Thieman, William J, and Michael A. Palladino. 2004. Introduction to Biotechnology. New York: Benjamin Cummings.
Tim Perkamusan Ilmiah, 2005. Kamus Pintar Biologi. Surabaya: Citra Wacana


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2 comments:

Anonymous said...

thanks a lot

Anonymous said...

I've been thinking about this very much... it sure raises a few questions..
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